The study showed that the removal efficiencies for turbidity and optimum alum dosage were (93% at 20 mg/l, 92% at 20 mg/l, 85% at 30 mg/l, 88% at 30 mg/l and 89.3% at 30 mg/l) respectively. 2001). In coagulation process, rapid mixing is used to spread out the coagulant throughout the turbid water. From the results it is implicit that the reduction of color was nearly 100 % by the sago starch. In neutral solutions, because of the more coiled structure, the chitosan polymer is able to produce larger and denser flocs. V. Saritha. M.Sc Thesis, University of Saskatchewan, Saskatoon, 22–29, Khoushab F, Yamabhai M (2010) chitin research revisited. 1). 2009. Take 1000 ml of given sample in 6 beakers. Therefore, the study of pH was essential to determine the optimum pH condition of the treatment system. doi:10.1002/jctb.1056, Zikakis JP (1984) Chitin, chitosan, and related enzymes. See Table #1 below for an example of the increments and dosage: Usually the dose of Alum varies between 5mg/lit for relatively clear water to about 85 mg/lit for very turbid waters. Determine the setting on the liquid alum chemical feeder in mL per minute when the water flow is 85 ML/day and the liquid alum delivered to the plant has the characteristics given below. 2009 in their studies taking into account the low dosage of chitosan in these experiments (systematically less than 1 mg/L), the amount of organic carbon introduced would remain low enough (less than 0.8 mg/L) to make its contribution negligible on the coagulation–flocculation performance. Chloride was estimated by argentometric method by titrating against 0.0141 N AgNO3. Tapioca is mainly processed into starch and sago. This reduction may be attributed to charge reversal and destabilization of colloidal particles due to overdosing as also suggested by Yukselen and Gregory (2004). The evidence infers that charge neutralization is not a major mechanism controlling the formation of floc for chitosan coagulation (Chihpin Huang and Yin Chen 1996). Get a printable copy (PDF file) of the complete article (470K), or click on a page image below to browse page by page. The results were in correlation with the studies done by Jadhav and Mahajan 2013. The optimum pH was 7 and was similar to the obtained results by Divakaran (Divakaran and Pillai 2002). 2003). Turbidity was determined using nephelometric turbidimeter which was calibrated at 40NTU standard suspension. Chemical structure of (starch) amylose and amylopectin (Buleon et al. The optimum alum dosage was lower (1 g L−1) which was the lowest required dosage obtained the highest turbidity removal. Pergamon Press, Oxford, Nnaji PC (2012) An investigation of the performance of various coagulants/flocculants in removing the turbidity of coal washery effluents. C. COD REMOVAL W.R.T DOSAGE FOR ALUM The optimum alum dosage is found to be 250 mg/l for the COD removal from the tannery waste water and it is shown in Table IX and Fig.7. Coagulation–flocculation–sedimentation (CFS) with starch in their studies has shown that treatment performances are poor in general except oil and grease removals for domestic wastewater. In the present study "Jar Test" was used. The color removal patterns of both alum and chitin were observed to be good at neutral pH, further more chitin has shown moderate efficiency in removing color at both the acidic and basic pH ranges, i.e., at pH 6 and also 8. 4 0 obj See the answer. Like cellulose, chitin is a fiber, and in addition, it presents exceptional chemical and biological qualities that can be used in many industrial and medical applications. Because of its ability to solubilise, pure water is not found in nature. Find the pH of the sample and adjust it to 6 to 8.5. Correct application of coagulation and flocculation processes and selection of the coagulants depend upon understanding the interaction between these factors. In flocculation process, slow mixing is a key part to get most favorable performance. The origin of chitin affects its crystallinity, purity, polymer chain arrangement, and dictates its properties (Rinaudo 2006). The presence of bivalent cations such as Ca+2 and Mg+2 increased the ion strength of solution and the destabilization. Mar Drugs 8(7):1988–2012, Li Q, Kegley L (2005) Assessing the effectiveness and environmental impacts of using natural flocculants to manage turbidity. The coagulation efficiency of alum remained almost constant within the dosage range of 1–4 g L−1 at pH range of 6–8. The best performance of alum in removing turbidity from water was obtained at pH 7 following by pH 6. The optimum pH range for turbidity removal was found to be 7 for alum and 6–8 for chitin, respectively, resulting in the maximum turbidity removal. Maier (2004) showed that modeling of alum dosage used in the coagulation process. There are more than 1,000 tapioca processing units in India producing starch and sago in cottage and small scale sectors (Manickavasagan and Thangavel 2006). The effectiveness of alum remained almost constant within the dosage range for good coagulation almost..., 4, 5, 6 mL of water lit of sample was! To that of at pH 6 from Manihot esculenta belonging to family Euphorblaceace and! Control of coagulant dosage should be considered in water treatment not found in nature and grease removal for wastewater... Ions very selectively, forming a chelate influence of the more coiled structure, the white flocs were large rigid. 2000, Divakaran R, Blackwell J ( 1978 ) the structure of [ alpha ] -chitin of... Reference: Lin, S. D., R. L. 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