(Probably not; other kinds of brain abnormalities, such as inflammation or damage to neural wiring from head injuries, may play a role.)”. How do we answer that question? Deontologists establish the central components of this paradigm by highlighting weaknesses in virtue and consequentialist theories. Kant pursues this project through the first two chapters ofthe Groundwork. Is this ever a consideration that buyers should take into account? Copyright © 2020 Ethics Unwrapped - McCombs School of Business – The University of Texas at Austin, 8 short videos present the 7 principles of values-driven leadership from, https://www.theatlantic.com/science/archive/2019/08/amber-fossil-supply-chain-has-dark-human-cost/594601/, https://www.cell.com/current-biology/pdf/S0960-9822(19)31097-8.pdf, https://www.nationalgeographic.com/science/2019/07/fossil-bird-in-amber-has-unusually-long-toes/, https://www.newscientist.com/article/mg24232280-600-blood-amber-the-exquisite-trove-of-fossils-fuelling-war-in-myanmar/, https://dc.law.utah.edu/cgi/viewcontent.cgi?article=1121&context=ulr, https://www.sciencemag.org/news/2019/05/fossils-burmese-amber-offer-exquisite-view-dinosaur-times-and-ethical-minefield, https://consult-myanmar.com/2018/07/11/myanmars-new-gold-mine-is-dinosaur-amber/, https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0960982216311939?via%3Dihub, https://business.financialpost.com/commodities/mining/dodging-rumour-and-insurgency-the-hunt-for-burmese-amber-goes-to-the-heart-of-myanmars-turbulent-north, https://www.newscientist.com/article/mg24232283-300-it-is-time-to-bring-global-attention-to-the-trade-in-burmese-amber/, https://www.cdc.gov/traumaticbraininjury/index.html, https://www.cdc.gov/headsup/basics/concussion_whatis.html, https://www.mayoclinic.org/diseases-conditions/chronic-traumatic-encephalopathy/symptoms-causes/syc-20370921, https://www.dispatch.com/news/20191124/student-athletes-still-reluctant-to-report-concussions-nationwide-childrens-study-finds, https://www.cnn.com/2019/10/15/health/concussion-high-school-sports-study/index.html, https://www.mlive.com/news/2019/11/what-parents-need-to-know-about-football-and-head-injuries.html, https://injuryprevention.bmj.com/content/24/3/180.full, https://www.espn.com/nfl/story/_/id/27372974/did-helmet-rule-actually-work-2018-how-change-2019, https://www.sportscasting.com/nfl-concussion-protocol-explained-how-does-it-work/, https://slate.com/culture/2015/12/the-truth-about-will-smiths-concussion-and-bennet-omalu.html, https://www.healthnewsreview.org/2018/01/sports-desks-drop-the-ball-on-big-concussion-story/, https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Precautionary_principle, https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Harm_principle, https://www.washingtonpost.com/sports/2020/04/07/oklahoma-states-mike-gundy-says-his-team-needs-play-benefit-state-economy/. But it also means disregarding the possible consequences of our actions when determining what is right and what is wrong. Is there a case to be made for “justified harm” in any of these leagues? Ethics, Population Health Policy, and Sports-Related TBI, in Sociolcultural Examinations of Sports Concussions (Matt Ventresca & Mary McDonald eds, 2020). And for the same reason, a helmet alone will not prevent CTE.”[55] Furthermore, while the NFL has banned helmet-to-helmet hits, these are neither the only nor the most common cause of concussions. If so, how would you go about guarding against it have a deleterious impact? [38] Jesse Mez et al., Duration of American Football Play and Chronic Traumatic Encephalopothy, Annals of Neurology, 2019; DOI: 10.1002/ana.25611. A public health professor has said that letting pre-teens play tackle football is “an abdication of moral responsibility for children’s welfare.”. [61] Ingfei Chen, Exactly How Dangerous Is Football?, The New Yorker, Feb. 1, 2020. Discussion Questions on High Schools & Colleges, Discussion Questions on Youth Leagues (Under 14). The co-chair of the NFL’s Health and Safety Advisory Committee has said that the committee thinks helmets are part of the culture and tradition and will not be outlawed in the foreseeable future. Do you think that the NFL would make more safety-related changes if white players dominated rosters? Utilitarian and Deontological principles can be utilized to resolve ethical dilemmas that arise in the nursing profession. And concussion recurrence has been reduced, most likely by protocols guiding when it is safe to return to play. Its name comes from the Greek word deon, meaning duty. Many people who are in favor of abolishing football or significantly reforming the way it is played are pro-choice when it comes to abortion, minor drug use, and assisted suicide. One of the oldest amber deposits in the world, dating back 100 million years, is located in the Northern region of Myanmar. For example, suppose you’re a software engineer and learn that a nuclear missile is about to launch that might start a war. Kant has gone down in history as one of the greatest thinkers of all time but it was his work in ethics that was his greatest contribution. Deontology is a school of moral philosophy in which ethical behavior equals following rules. To determine if actions are right or wrong we do not look at the outcome in deontology. Explain. [69] Julie Mack, What Parents Need to Know about Football, Concusions and Head Injuries, mlive.com, Nov. 24, 2019, at https://www.mlive.com/news/2019/11/what-parents-need-to-know-about-football-and-head-injuries.html (quoting neurologist David Kaufman). For example, acts of lying, promise breaking, or murder are intrinsically wrong and we have a duty not to do these things. A decision is right if it conforms to relevant duties, principles,… Which approach do you think should be used to determine the ethicality of banning, or at least seriously reforming, football to reduce head trauma? Deontological ethics holds that at least some acts are morally obligatory regardless of their consequences for human welfare. No, it’s not crazy because we need to continue and budget and run money through the state of Oklahoma.”. ... Kant, Fundamental Principles of the Metaphysics of Morals,1898. This hostile takeover of the profitable Kachin amber mines ensures that amber purchases from researchers and private collectors will help fund the government side of the Myanmar ethnic civil war. While some researchers and universities feel as though they should refrain from making such amber purchases, their failure to participate enables many private collectors to remove collections from the public or to charge researchers an exorbitant fee for access. Deontology is often associated with philosopher Immanuel Kant. [26] James P. Kelly et al., Concussion in Sports: Guidelines for the Prevention of Catastrophic Outcome, JAMA, 266(20): 2867-2869 (1991). Its name comes from the Greek word deon, meaning duty. Other studies found that NFL players who suffered concussions were more likely to later be diagnosed with depression. [29] Julie Mack, What Parents Need to Know about Football, Concussions and Head Injuries, mlive.com, Nov. 24, 2019, at https://www.mlive.com/news/2019/11/what-parents-need-to-know-about-football-and-head-injuries.html (quoting neuroscientist Julie Stamm). [19] Rachel Grashow et al., Association of Concussion Symptoms with Testosterone levels and Erectile Dysfunction in Former Professional US-Style Football Players, JAMA Neurology, 2019: DOI: 10.1001/jamaneurol.2019.2664. According to research by neuroscientists, “There seems to be greater consequences if you’re getting your head hit when the brain is rapidly developing [below age 12].”. There is no official state religion but the Myanmar government favors the majority Theravada Buddhism population. This […] Encyclopaedia Britannica's editors oversee subject areas in which they have extensive knowledge, whether from years of experience gained by working on that content or via study for an advanced degree.... Get exclusive access to content from our 1768 First Edition with your subscription. [31] Christie Aschwanden, Football’s Concussion Crisis is Awash with Pseudoscience, Wired.com, Oct. 2, 2019. [51] Kevin Seifer, Did the Helmet Rule Actually Work? [35]  Other studies have involved skewed samples, including one where all the NFL players’ brains had been donated because of mental declines that the donors had suffered before their deaths.[36]. Kantian ethics refers to a deontological ethical theory developed by German philosopher Immanuel Kant that is based on the notion that: "It is impossible to think of anything at all in the world, or indeed even beyond it, that could be considered good without limitation except a good will." [17] Kevin M. Guskiewicz et al., Association between Recurrent Concussion and Late-Life Cognitive Impairment in Retired Professional Football Players, Neurosurgery 57(4): 719-726 (2005). Should we never lie? Ethics can be really hard to define, since what you think is right, or ethical, might be very different from what your friends or family members think. [22] Steven Senne, Student Athletes Still Reluctant to Report Concussions, Nationwide Children’s Study Finds, Columbus Dispatch, Nov. 24, 2019, at https://www.dispatch.com/news/20191124/student-athletes-still-reluctant-to-report-concussions-nationwide-childrens-study-finds. 5. [39] Atheendar S. Venkataramani et al, Association Between Playing American Football and Long-term Mortality, JAMA, 319(8): 800-806  (2018). A 2007 study found that retired NFL players experienced levels of depressive symptoms no worse than those of the general population. It just requires that people follow the rules and do their duty. How about the reverse—why do many people who believe football players should be free to decide what they do with their bodies take decidedly un-libertarian positions on issues such as abortion, marijuana legalization, and assisted suicide? KANT’S OBJECTIONS TO UTILITARIANISM: 1. [75] Steve Almond, Is It Immoral to Watch the Super Bowl?, New York Times, Jan. 24, 2014. [41] Ashwin L. Rao et al., Suicide in National Collegiate Athletic (NCAA) Athletes: a 9-Year Analysis of the NCAA Resolutions Database, Sports Health 7(5): 452-457 (2015). See also Michael Cunningham, Player Safety Takes Back Seat as NCAA Rushes to Allow Campus Workouts, Atlanta Journal-Constitution, May 22, 2020. In any event, Kant’s critics questioned his view that all duties can be derived from a purely formal principle and argued that, in his preoccupation with rational consistency, he neglected the concrete content of moral obligation. This ethical orientation uses processes and rules to guide ethical decisions. A 2019 study of the brains of 223 football players with CTE and 43 players without CTE found that for each additional 2.6 years of play, the risk of developing CTE doubled. [56] Professor Goldberg argues that “there is little evidence that such incremental changes [e.g., in tackling techniques] have a substantial risk-reducing effect.”[57]. Thus, deontological theories and duties have existed for many centu… [45] Eamon T. Campolettano et al., Development of a Concussion Risk Function for a Youth Population Using Heal Linear and Rotational Acceleration, Annals of Biomedical Engineering, 48(1): 92 DOI: 10.1007/s10439-019-02382-2. By contrast, teleological ethics (also called consequentialist ethics or consequentialism) holds that the basic standard of morality is precisely the value of what an action brings into being. 1. [78] David Gee, Doubt is Their Product: How Industry’s Assault on science Threatens Your Health, Journal of Public Health Policy, 29(4): 474-479 (2008). However, ethics is loosely defined as established standards of right and wrong that spell out what people s… By signing up for this email, you are agreeing to news, offers, and information from Encyclopaedia Britannica. Deontological theories have been termed formalistic, because their central principle lies in the conformity of an action to some rule or law. Actions that obey these rules are ethical, while actions that do not, are not. In deontology, ethical decisions are made according to the principles of duty. Furthermore, many of the miners in the Kachin region, on both sides of the conflict, are not fully aware of the value of the amber that they are selling and are therefore being exploited by the wholesalers who purchase from them. The moral philosophy behind deontological ethics suggests that each person has a duty to always do the right thing. What the lie accomplishes is deception. [55] Julie Mack, What Parents Need to Know about Football, Concussions and Head Injuries, mlive.com, Nov. 24, 2019, at https://www.mlive.com/news/2019/11/what-parents-need-to-know-about-football-and-head-injuries.html (quoting neuroscientist Julie Stamm). Support your position with data and facts. [52], On the other hand, while football helmets can prevent fractured skulls, they will likely never be able to prevent concussions. [92] Patrick Findler, Should Kids Play (American) Football?, Journal of the Philosophy of Sport, 42(3): 443-462 (2015). Deontology is often associated with philosopher Immanuel Kant. Deontology respects the integrity of all humans and does not treat people as a means to an end. ‘Deontology’, or ‘rule-based ethics’, focuses on duty, and the ethical principles derived from generally-accepted rules which guide actions. Suicide rates among NCAA football players are the highest among all sports, but they are substantially lower than the general population age 18-22 or college students in that age range. If you apply Systematic Moral Analysis to the question of whether or not it is moral to continue to support and/or play football, do you get different results for different league categories and age groups? Deontology, one of the most influential ethical frameworks proposed by Immanuel Kant, is focused on binding rules, obligation and duty (to family, country, church, etc. Bry’s answer is that it’s not the players who are immoral, it is the fans who are comparable to Romans sitting in the Colosseum watching lions devour Christians. [27] Bryan R. Cobb et al., Head Impact Exposure in Youth Football: Elementary School Ages 9-12 Years and the Effect of Practice Structure, Annals of Biomedical Engineering, 41: 2463-2473 (2013). It paid more than $750 million to settle a civil lawsuit by former players. Why or why not? In religious deontology, the principles derive from divine commandment so that under religious laws, we are morally obligated not to steal, lie, or cheat. This article was most recently revised and updated by, https://www.britannica.com/topic/deontological-ethics, Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy - Deontological Ethics. Myanmar classifies amber as a gemstone, not a fossil, so it can be legally removed from the country, unlike fossils that have restrictions on removal. Deontological principles of treating individuals with dignity, and promoting the well-being of the individual parallels the nursing tenet of non-maleficence. [91] J.S. A 2012 study of 3,439 NFL players with five years or more in the NFL found that their neurogenerative mortality was three times that of the general U.S. population, and four times higher for two subcategories: Alzheimer’s disease, and Lou Gehrig’s Disease (amyotrophic lateral sclerosis or ALS). [90] J.S. [3], A traumatic brain injury (TBI) is “a disruption in the normal function of the brain that can be caused by a bump, blow, or jolt to the head, or penetrating head injury.”[4] A concussion is a form of TBI where the blow causes the brain to move rapidly back and forth, bouncing around in the skull and suffering various types of structural damage. [84] Ted Tatos, Playing Games with College Athletes’ Lives, The American Prospect, May 20, 2020. 36 short illustrated videos explain behavioral ethics concepts and basic ethics principles. Ross distinguished those prima facie duties (such as promise keeping, reparation, gratitude, and justice) from actual duties, for “any possible act has many sides to it which are relevant to its rightness or wrongness”; and those facets have to be weighed before “forming a judgment on the totality of its nature” as an actual obligation in the given circumstances. A study of 3,904 Wisconsin men found no significant harmful association between playing football in high school and cognitive impairment or depression later in life. [85] Michael Cunningham, Player Safety Takes Back Seat as NCAA Rushes to Allow Campus Workouts, Atlanta Journal-Constitution, May 22, 2020 (quoting Huma). 57 Daniel Goldberg, What Does the Precautionary Principle Demand of Us? The principle of autonomy stems from the theory of deontology (1). [60] Ingfei Chen, Exactly How Dangerous Is Football?, The New Yorker, Feb. 1, 2020. It is known as Deontology and the great champion of Deontology was a Prussian named Immanuel Kant. Duty-based ethics are usually what people are talking about when they refer to 'the principle of the thing'. [74] Dave Bry, American Football is Too Dangerous, and It Should Be Abolished, The Guardian (UK), Jan. 4, 2016. Start studying Deontology and Prima Facie Principles. This ethical theory is most closely … Deontology is a school of moral philosophy in which ethical behavior equals following rules. [66] Daniel Goldberg, Mild Traumatic Brain Injury, the National Football League, and the Manufacture of Doubt: An Ethical, Legal, and Historical Analysis, Journal of Legal Medicine, 34: 157-191 (2013). Updates? MORAL INQUIRY Ronald F. White, Ph.D. Deontology does not always, in fact, almost never, equates the ‘right’ with the ‘good’. Be on the lookout for your Britannica newsletter to get trusted stories delivered right to your inbox. Chronic traumatic encephalopathy (CTE) is “brain degeneration likely caused by repeated head traumas.”[6] Repetitive head impacts (RHIs) can cumulatively lead to CTE and early death, even though no single RHI results in a concussion. Football rules intentionally create high speed collisions between human beings, making such injuries inevitable and the sport controversial. [Reporting a concussion] doesn’t make you weak, it means you’re strong.” On the other hand, President Trump has stated that rule changes to diminish head injuries are “ruining the game.”, One scientist said: “Don’t forget there’s risk in everything we do. Don’t steal. Explain. One suggested solution to the concussion problem is to outlaw helmets on the theory that players will be forced to reduce headfirst collisions and other trauma-causing actions. An Analysis of Youth Football Head Impact Data, Neurosurgery (Jan. 2020), available at https://doi.org/10.1093/neuros/nyz563. They’re all in good shape. A political issue? Deontologists believe that the goal of moral philosophy should be to figure out the “rules” for living a moral life and that once people know those rules they should follow them. [36] Munro Cullum, Is Football Bad for the Brain? Students who are a big follower of the science of morality and pursuing their course in psychology or literature have to deal with the different types of assignments on deontology. Deontology is a theory that suggests actions are good or bad according to a clear set of rules. Its prevalence is unknown, and the neuropathological diagnostic criteria are no more than preliminary. [53] Christie Aschwanden, Football’s Concussion Crisis Is Awash with Pseudoscience, Wired.com, Oct. 2, 2019. The ability to hold a piece of history untouched by time has resulted in a number of scientific discoveries and advances such as feathers on a non-avian dinosaur dated 99 million years ago and the biosynthesis of gene clusters for novel antibiotics. [89] Mariana Brussoni et al., Risky Play and Children’s Safety: Balancing Priorities for Optimal Child Development, International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health, 9:3134-3148 (2012). [5] Although concussions can carry serious consequences, they are termed a “mild” form of TBI because they are not typically life threatening. Do these choices remind you of the COVID-19 pandemic when governments, in deciding whether to shut down society and later when to reopen it, had to weigh lives vs. livelihoods? Myanmar is a small southeast Asian country that contains about 130 diverse ethnic groups recognized by the government. [34] Munro Cullum, Is Football Bad for the Brain? [80] Anthony E. Prior, The Slave Side of Sunday (2006). Actions that obey these rules are ethical, while actions that do not, are not. [63] Matt Ventresca, The Curious Case of CTE: Mediating Materialities of Traumatic Brain Injury, Communication & Sport, 7(2): 135-156 (2019). In one study, use of newly-designed football helmets and safe tackling techniques eliminated concussions for 20 middle school aged players for an entire season. Chen noted that “there is no such thing as an acceptably risky crib,” but contrasted it with sports like football where “hazards are part of their attraction.” She asked: “How much risk is too much?”. How do the tau clumps relate to the clinical syndrome—do the lesions fully explain the mood and memory problems? [46] Robert F. Heary et al., Is Youth Football Safe? ... Kant’s principle of morality is the categorical imperative. Players Hit Back, New York Times, Sept. 26, 2017. A 2017 study found CTE in 21% of donated brains of deceased high school football players. African-Americans make up 12.6% of the American population but 68% of NFL rosters. Football causes more concussions than any other high school sport. [16] Kevin M. Guskiewicz et al., Recurrent Concussion and Risk of Depression in Retired Professional Football Players, Medicine & Science in Sports & Leisure, 39(6): 903-909 (2007). The first great philosopher to define deontological principles was Immanuel Kant, the 18th-century German founder of critical philosophy (see Kantianism). To say we should never lie seems untenable; but to open the door to lying flies in the face of an aversion captured by Charles Fried’s comment: a good person does not lie. If you took a deontological approach, what would your reasoning look like? [72] Daniel Goldberg, Mild Traumatic Brain Injury, the National Football League, and the Manufacture of Doubt: An Ethical, Legal, and Historical Analysis, Journal of Legal Medicine, 34: 157-191 (2013). If subconcussive blows are the cause of C.T.E., how much impact is too much? High school athletes are reluctant to report concussions. ), rather than results or consequences. Let us know if you have suggestions to improve this article (requires login). [5] Center for Disease Control, at https://www.cdc.gov/headsup/basics/concussion_whatis.html. One expert said “It really seems right now that if your [football] practices are highly controlled and reduced as much as possible and you only play four years of high school, your [CTE] risk is probably pretty low.”. Pamela R. Sailors, Personal Foul: An Evaluation of the Moral Status of Football, Journal of the Philosophy of Sport, 42(2): 269-286 (2015). Deontology advises not to violate this rule. …Oxford under the name of deontology (from the Greek. Explain. Kant held that nothing is good without qualification except a good will, and a good will is one that wills to act in accord with the moral law and out of respect for that law rather than out of natural inclinations. Where the idea of right and wrong comes from is a question that stems from a branch of philosophy known as ethics. Children between the ages of 9 and 14 make up the largest cohort of football players in the U.S. Despite its strengths, rigidly following deontology can produce results that many people find unacceptable. Respecting a person's right to be involved in their own health care is embedded in the principle of autonomy. A collection of one-of-a-kind videos that highlight the ethical aspects of various subjects. Kant believed that ethical actions follow universal moral laws, such as “Don’t lie. Some take the view that the NFL has acted like the tobacco industry did when it was confronted with lawsuits seeking to prove to juries that smoking caused cancer. Hence, lying is considered wrong, even if it is to benefit or bring about better consequences. In deciding whether it is ethical for you to buy amber from Myanmar, do you need to guard against the self-serving bias unduly affecting your decision? Deontology, one of the most influential ethical frameworks proposed by Immanuel Kant, is focused on binding rules, obligation and duty (to family, country, church, etc. Deontological theories have been termed formalistic, because their central principle lies in the conformity of an action to some rule or law. In the principles of deontology, an action is only regarded as morally good not because the result of the action is good but because of some characteristics of the action itself. Deontology derives from the Greek word “deon,” meaning duty or obligation. In deontology, ethical decisions are made according to the principles of duty. You can hack the network and cancel the launch, but it’s against your professional code of ethics to break into any software system without permission. It just requires that people follow the rules and do their duty. Steve Almond argues that “a civilian leisure class … has created, for its own entertainment, a caste of warriors too big and strong and fast to play a child’s game without grievously injuring one another.”. Why, then, do you think they oppose letting adults choose freely to play football? Utilitarianism takes no account of integrity - the accidental act or one done with evil intent if promoting good ends is the good act! Five million cribs had been sold. Dr. Omalu identified abnormal clumps of the protein tau in Webster’s brain, which he believed to be evidence of CTE. Being Your Best Self, Part 1: Moral Awareness, Being Your Best Self, Part 2: Moral Decision Making, Being Your Best Self, Part 3: Moral Intent, Being Your Best Self, Part 4: Moral Action, Ethical Leadership, Part 1: Perilous at the Top, Ethical Leadership, Part 2: Best Practices, Curbing Corruption: GlaxoSmithKline in China, Deontology is an ethical theory that uses rules to distinguish right from wrong. Your focus must be on the actions taken instead of the results achieved. ), rather than results or consequences. Deontology is the theory that a person should do his duty, based on whether the action taken is itself right or wrong under the applicable laws. [21] Adnan A. Hirad, A Common Neural Signature of Brain Injury in Concussion and Subconcussion, Science Advances 5(8), Aug. 2019. And, it’s a form of lying and cheating. The field is surprisingly new. Ethics, Population Health Policy, and Sports-Related TBI, in Sociolcultural Examinations of Sports Concussions (Matt Ventresca & Mary McDonald eds, 2020). [81] Peter Benson, Big Football: Corporate Social Responsibility and the Culture and Color of Injury in America’s Most Popular Sport, Journal of Sport and Social Issues, 41(4): 307-334 (2017). And How Will It Change in 2019?, ESPN, Aug. 19, 2019, at https://www.espn.com/nfl/story/_/id/27372974/did-helmet-rule-actually-work-2018-how-change-2019. Because an act served the purpose successfully does not make it ethically right. Deontological ethics is a moral philosophy where the usual ethical definition of right or wrong is based on a series of rules to follow instead of the consequences which occur from such a decision. Why or why not. [37] Everett J. Lehman et al., Suicide Mortality Among Retired National Football League Players Who Played 5 or More Seasons, American Journal of Sports Medicine, 44(10): 2486-2491 (2016). Utilitarianism is the principle that the correct form of action be taken to benefit the greatest number of people. [11] Justin Ehrlich et al., Mortality Risk Factors Among National Football League Players: An Analysis Using Player Career Data, F1000Research 2019, 8:2022. [30] Julie M. Stamm et al., Age of First Exposure to Football and Later-life Cognitive Impairment in Former NFL Players, Neurology, 84(11): 1114-1120 (2015). The term deontology comes from the Greek word deon, meaning duty. Concussion Suit, New York Times, April 22, 2015. However, in letting the missile launch, thousands of people will die. Bry’s answer is that only the football players are being paid to do this “for our entertainment.”. [18] Ernest L. Abel, Football Increases the Risk for Lou Gehrig’s Disease, Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis, Perceptual Motor Skills, 104(3): 1251-1254 (20007). Kant's theory is an example of a deontological or duty-based ethics : it judges morality by examining the nature of actions and the will of agents rather than goals achieved. The theory of deontology states we are morally obligated to act in accordance with a certain set of principles and rules regardless of outcome.