Chemical Dose Determination The most important component of a control strategy for chemical phosphorous removal is the calculation of coagulant dosage. This indicates that at higher influent turbidities (higher particle concentrations), particle aggregation becomes easier and therefore effluent flocs are generally bigger and settle out faster. The equations relating Gbar to the flow rate Q for laminar pipe flow are as displayed below. Is there a general amount of P removed by biological/chemical treatment? It all depends on the wastewater characteristics, the mixing & dispersion conditions, the phosphorus concentration in your raw water and the expected concentration at the release point & so on…. Note that the transition between laminar flow to turbulent flow in long smooth pipes occurs at a Reynolds number of roughly Re = 2300. Lab sampling is the main way to monitor proper dosing of P removal. Figure 1: Settling curves for various alum doses at an influent turbidity of 50 NTU. alinea, I appreciate your answers to my queries. The effectiveness of alum is measured by the size of flocs after flocculation. The 100 NTU figure (Figure 3) is missing curves for the experiments run at 0 mg/L and 5 mg/L because the data obtained for those two runs were interrupted by the interference of the 7kPa pressure sensor going in and out of voltage range. To determine the optimal alum dose needed for an influent water turbidity of 100 NTU, we set up a special program in Process Controller. 5. Contrary to expectations, it appears that the quality of the final water was worse off after adding 5 mg/L of alum as opposed to having no alum present. Alum and ferric chloride are the most commonly used coagulants in MBR process because they can reduce phosphorus to the lowest concentration. The experiments do not show conclusive evidence of where the optimal alum dose is for the different levels of turbidity. alum used (wet or dry), dosage rate, area treated, equipment rental or purchase, and labor. *  An activated sludge retains between 10 to 20%. Check our job offerings and find your next career move, Get fresh news from the industry with FluksAqua blog, FluksAqua, your leading online resource for water and wastewater services. Aluminum sulfate (Al 2 (SO 4) 3 or alum): Aluminum sulfate (commonly called alum) is used as a coagulant, causing colloidal particles to clump together and settle out of the water. Use the Radiation Dose Calculator to estimate your yearly dose from sources of ionizing radiation. I. The metal weight calculator allows you to calculate the weight in pounds for your steel, stainless steel, aluminum, iron, silver and much more! We varied the alum dose added to the influent stream from 0 mg/L to 45 mg/L in increments of 5 mg/L for an influent turbidity of 50, 75, 100, and 150 NTU. This field is for validation purposes and should be left unchanged. How is an optimal dosage determined when using alum for phosphorus removal for the final effluent in a wastewater MBR? Depending on the type of coagulant used, the dosage will vary. The best way to optimize your system is thru sampling and monitoring. Since we do not have the equipment needed to observe and measure the sizes of flocs formed after each experiment, we can only observe the rate at which flocs settle under quiescent conditions and the final settled turbidity. Lower doses are required to give equivalent results to alum. Aluminum Sulfate (liquid) ... dosage calculation. Calculate the actual alum dose in mg/L for a plant treating a flow of 5 MGD with an alum feed rate of 250 lb/day. 3. There is an unexpected anomaly in the relationship between the 0 mg/L curve and the 5 mg/L curve. Additionally, it appears that for the higher alum doses, the curve flattened out at approximately the same elapsed time in each of the four influent turbidity experiments. Part of the aluminum cations Al3 + precipitate in parallel with hydroxide ions OH- to form precipitates Aluminum hydroxide Al (OH)3. In bulk water treatment, the jar tests are repeated with varied alum dose until the ideal dose is found. You need to calculate the TP % of reduction required to get the amount of alum (or any other metal salt) needed for the expected results. Wastewater Sludge (biosolids) Production Estimating Calculator . From observations of past experiments and reports done by past lab floc teams, a Gbar (average velocity gradient) of roughly 40 sec-1 was selected as the Gbar that will be used in every run of this particular alum dose experiment. To determine the optimal alum dose needed for an influent water turbidity of 100 NTU, we set up a special program in Process Controller. Learn more >> Protective Action Guide (PAG) Q&A, Map Templates. This precipitation simultaneously increases the consumption of aluminum, but these hydroxides also contribute to the flocculation and decanting of the phosphor particles. *  A chemical treatment will transform soluble phosphorus into particulate phosphorus, allowing the reduction of total phosphorus following a "Solid-liquid" separation. Medical Dosage Calculations For Dummies Cheat Sheet By Richard Snyder, Barry Schoenborn No matter what initials you have after your name (RN, CNA, PA, and so on), you can bet you’ll see math on a daily basis if you’re going into (or are already in) a career in the medical field. We varied the alum dose added to the influent stream from 0 mg/L to 45 mg/L in increments of 5 mg/L for an influent turbidity of 50, 75, 100, and 150 NTU. Alum doses in the range 30 to 60 mg/L have been used to treat this water, which has a true colour of 20-30 Pt/Co units and a turbidity of 20 to 40 NTU under normal river flow conditions. In practice, the aluminum to phosphorus molar ratio to be applied is greater than the stoichiometric ratio. It will delude the concentration of P in the wastewater. This trend occurred across all turbidities (this observation is less obvious in the 100 NTU run, but the data does not necessarily oppose this observation) and is a phenomena that may be of significance in understanding alum effectiveness. You control your process thru monitoring your process. The volume of … Yield of the calculations : Polymer consumption GPD (neat) 428.49786 : Polymer consumption GPH (neat) 17.85408 : Polymer consumption GPM (neat) 0.29757 : Polymer consumption Ounces/Min (neat) 38.08870 : PPM of polymer needed to make the process work : 3500 : 24: Process Day (Hrs) RTU polymer/water mixture consumption GPM : 0.29757 In water treatment processes, the primary electrolyte introduced into solution as the primary coagulant is aluminum sulfate (Al2(SO4)3), also known as Alum. Weight Calculator Metal gets heavy, and whether you want to see how much shipping is likely to be, or if your vehicle (or back) can handle it, it’s good to know what your order weighs. If you want to calculate the dose of a medication, you need to use the following equation: dose = weight * dosage. Since most suspended colloidal matter in surface waters have an overall negatively charged surface, the dissolved Al species will adsorb onto the surfaces of these particles and reduce its net surface charge, thus lowering the barrier for floc formation. Iron in the form of ferric salt (chloride or sulphate) is the preferred coagulant when added in the absence of oxygen. You will need to apply a strong molar ratio to achieve the required results. This range in alum doses was selected based on previous observations that 40 mg/L of alum produced best results at a turbidity on the order of 100 NTU. The appropriate amount of alum required to facilitate total particle removal via the sedimentation of flocs is dictated by a couple key parameters: The concentration of clay particles and other natural organic matter (specifically the chemical properties of these contaminants and their reactivity with the dissolved Al species) will effect how much alum is needed. Figure 3: Settling curves for various alum doses at an influent turbidity of 100 NTU. The aluminum helps make the cell walls of fruits and vegetables sturdier, producing a crisp pickle or firm cherry. Hope this helps! In the current laboratory flocculator experimental setup, there are several parameters that control the flocculator process. Application of higher alum dosage range may improve turbidity removal from A too low a dose of alum can result in variable effluent P concentrations as well as a noncompliance of discharge limits. Dosage rates for aluminum salts or for iron salts are based on the molar ratio of available metal ion to phosphorous. For your question: Will type of coagulant make difference for P removal? The increase in chloride in the treated water is much lower than the sulphate increase from alum, resulting in lower overall increases in the TDS of the treated water. Material for this article was largely taken from reference1.Coagulation and flocculation are essential processes in various disciplines. The cause of this discrepancy is unclear, but it appeared to be an isolated occurrence as the experiments run with 75 (Figure 2) and 150 NTU (Figure 4) were consistent with expectations. Do you have any feedback on using diaphragm pumps for lime slurry dosing? Iron requirement is greater than the aluminum requirement in terms of chemical dosage to remove same amount of phosphorus. Calculate the actual alum dose in mg/L for a plant treating a flow of 1 MGD with an alum feed rate of 130 lb/day. The flow rate at which all our experiments will be run is Q = 1.33 mL/sec which produces a Gbar = 42 sec-1. Aluminum Plate Weight Calculation Material Alloy Steel Aluminum Beryllium Brass Bronze Cast Iron Columbium Copper Copper Alloys Gold Lead Magnesium Molybdenum Nickel Plastic Silver Stainless Steel Tantalum Titanium Tungsten Zinc Zirconium Dose Calculator. The fact that the curves are so similar in all four figures suggests that the optimal alum doses changes only slightly for this range of turbidity values. 2. The 100 NTU experiments were the first experiments to be run, so the error was fixed and eliminated. The amount of alum required to treat a flow of 1 MGD(million gallon /day) 2. Is UV light or ozonation as effective as chlorination? alum to be added and give proper precipitation is calculated using the this equation: Total alkalinity required (mg/L) = Alkalinity reacting with alum (mg/L) + alkalinity presence in the water (mg/L) {?1 mg/L alum reacts with 0.45 mg/L alkalinity}. Another general observation deduced from comparing each of the figures is that the settling rate of flocs increases dramatically between the alum dose of 5 mg/L and 10 mg/L. We can get average dosage of ferric/ferrous salt requirement based on more information from you on system configuration and relevant concentrations. TNTC Calculation . 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